Social Media Sites You Need to Know!

50+ Social Media Sites You Need to Know in 2019

Influencer Marketing Last Updated: May 2nd, 2019 Reading Time: 13 minutes

Source: https://influencermarketinghub.com/50-social-media-sites-you-need-to-know/

As socially inclined creatures, human beings have embraced technology that connects us with others. Every year, there is an increasing amount of people signing up for and using social media. While there weren’t even a billion people using social media back in 2010, the number exceeded more than 2 billion within just five years.

In 2019, there will be around 2.77 billion people using social media. And with smartphones and internet connectivity becoming cheaper and easier to access, we should expect to see these numbers grow even higher. By 2021, more than 3 billion people will be using social media.

What this means for marketers is that there is huge potential to reach a massive and engaged audience on social media. And that’s not just limited to the popular social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

In this post, you’ll discover 50+ social media sites that you can use to market your brand and engage with your target audience. Some of these platforms could even help you build valuable connections in your areas of interest.
50+ Social Media Sites You Need to Know in 2019:

#1: Facebook
#2: Instagram
#3: Twitter
#4: Tumblr
#5: LinkedIn
#6: WhatsApp
#7: Snapchat
#8: Pinterest
#9: Reddit
#10: YouTube
#11: Mix
#12: Tagged
#13: Nextdoor
#14: Deviantart
#15: Quora
#16: Meetup
#17: ReverbNation
#18: Flixster
#19: Goodreads
#20: Twitch
#21: CaringBridge
#22: Wattpad
#23: Viadeo
#24: Crunchyroll
#25: Skyrock
#26: VK
#27: MyHeritage
#28: LiveJournal
#29: Classmates
#30: SoundCloud
#31: Bubbly
#32: Flickr
#33: We Heart It
#34: Influenster
#35: FilmAffinity
#36: Open Diary
#37: Yelp
#38: CollegeHumor
#39: Gaia Online
#40: MocoSpace
#41: CouchSurfing
#42: Funny or Die
#43: italki
#44: eToro
#45: XING
#45: MeetMe
#46: Ravelry
#47: Care2
#48: YY
#49: Vero
#50: Medium
#51: GIPHY
#52: Tribe
Conclusion

#1: Facebook

Facebook is currently the largest social media site in the world. With 2.32 billion monthly active users by Q4 of 2018, it’s safe to say that nearly every social media user is on Facebook. So it’s an excellent platform for brands to market their products to a huge audience.

Users can share text posts, links, images, and videos with their Facebook friends. They can follow famous people and pages and react to people’s posts on the platform. Brands can also promote their products using paid ads on Facebook.
#2: Instagram

Instagram is one of the fastest-growing social networking platforms. While it is mostly app-based, users can also access their feed through the website version. In June 2018, it finally reached 1 billion monthly active users.

Instagram is a highly visual platform, where users share videos and images as well as Stories and Live broadcasts. It is very popular among the younger generations. According to Statista, 32% of users are aged between 18 and 24 and 33% are aged between 25 and 34.

Image Source: Statista
#3: Twitter

Twitter is a platform that lets users stay on top of trending topics and engage in relevant conversations. In 2018, the platform had 326 million monthly active users. While it doesn’t have as many users as other top social media sites, it does have a highly engaged user base. Twitter users send out at least 500 million tweets per day on average.
#4: Tumblr

Tumblr is another leading social media site. Users can join communities and participate in cultural dialogues to expand their ideas. It’s one of the top social media sites for self-expression and is very popular among teens and fandoms.

As of January 2019, there was a total of 456.1 million Tumblr blogs through which 168.4 billion posts had been made. About 32% of traffic to the platform came from the United States. In the U.K., Tumblr’s market share among social networking platforms was approximately 1.94% in February 2019.

Image Source: Statista
#5: LinkedIn

LinkedIn is a social media site for professionals and is very popular among a B2B audience. The platform has grown rapidly over the years and currently has 610 million members. Members can expand their professional connections on the platform, showcase their portfolios, and search and apply for jobs.

LinkedIn is also an excellent platform to share your professional expertise, as it allows members to publish blog posts that reside on the platform.
#6: WhatsApp

WhatsApp is a messaging app that lets users share text messages, images, voice notes, audio files, documents, and videos. It has grown exponentially over the years and had about 1.5 billion monthly users in early 2018. Along with its growing user base, the platform has also introduced many new features to make interactions easier among users.

While users could only make one-on-one calls before, it now has a group calling feature. They also introduced a WhatsApp Status feature that allowed users to update photo, video, and text statuses that disappeared after 24 hours. As of Q2 of 2018, 450 million users were updating their WhatsApp Statuses daily.

Image Source: Statista
#7: Snapchat

Snapchat is another highly visual social media platform that’s popular among the younger generation. Users can send snaps to each other and update 24-hour Statuses just like on WhatsApp and Instagram. In Q4 of 2018, it had 186 million daily active users who are highly active on the platform.

As of June 2018, Snapchat users were sending out more than 2 million snaps per minute. And videos on the platform get more than 10 billion views on a daily basis.
#8: Pinterest

Pinterest is a virtual scrapbooking social media site and is therefore, highly visual. Users can create themed boards and add images and products to the board. Brands can even create Shoppable Pins through which users can directly make purchases.

As of 2018, there were 250 million monthly active users on the platform. These users have created more than 175 billion pins on over 3 billion boards.
#9: Reddit

Reddit is a social media site where users become part of subreddits and engage with other users on relevant topics. It is also somewhat of a news aggregator site since users share the latest news from different sources on the site. Other users will then interact with this news, upvote or downvote it, and comment on it.

It has a huge community of over 1.64 billion users. It is most popular among American internet users, with 38.35% of traffic coming from the United States. The second biggest traffic source is the United Kingdom, which contributes to 7.26% of its traffic. 99.98% of its traffic is organic, proving the popularity of the site.

Image Source: SimilarWeb
#10: YouTube

YouTube is the largest video-sharing social media site in the world. It lets users upload videos on the platform, view videos from other users, and interact with them. As of 2018, it had 1.9 billion monthly active users – almost as much as Facebook. YouTube users spend an average of 40 minutes watching videos on the platform.
#11: Mix

Previously StumbleUpon, Mix is a news aggregator social media site that lets users curate their favourite content from around the web and add it to their “Collections.” This includes articles, images, music, and videos. They can also view content curated by their friends and subscribe to their Collections.
#12: Tagged

This social media site acquired the once popular hi5 social media platform in 2011. It is mainly focused around friendship and dating. Users can connect with others through common interests, games, browsing profiles, and more.
#13: Nextdoor

Nextdoor is a private social network for dedicated neighbourhoods. You can enter your street address and find a community of people living in your area. While it was previously just for neighbourhoods in the U.S., it has now expanded to other parts of the world. You can now use it from the U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Australia, Sweden, and Denmark.

Image Source: Nextdoor
#14: Deviantart

Deviantart calls itself the world’s largest social media community for artists and art enthusiasts. Users can share photos of their artwork, discover the work of other artists, and interact with other members of the community. According to the platform, it currently has more than 44 million registered users and 45+ million unique visitors each month.
#15: Quora

Quora is one of the largest social networks for people to ask and answer questions about hundreds of topics and categories. This includes everything from language and career to mythology and marketing. As of 2018, it had 300 million monthly active users and received 300 million unique visitors on a monthly basis.

If you have any question that internet results cannot answer, you can post it under a relevant category. You can even send answer requests to experts on the topic.
#16: Meetup

Meetup is a social media site that does exactly what its name says – it helps connect users with local groups to meet up with new people. Groups can organise events for like-minded people to get together.

You can find groups in a wide range of categories including outdoors and adventure, tech, photography, language and culture, music, and more. It is most popular in the U.S., which contributes to 53.89% of its traffic, followed by the U.K., which contributes to 7.25% of its traffic.

Image Source: Meetup
#17: ReverbNation

ReverbNation is one of the most reputable social media sites dedicated to musicians. They can promote their music through the platform and reach a bigger audience. They can even make money off of their tracks by selling them to fans or distributing them to major digital platforms. Besides these basics, ReverbNation also offers a host of tools and features to help musicians build their careers.
#18: Flixster

Flixster is another niche social media site with a focus on film. It’s an American-based site where film enthusiasts can connect with like-minded people and share their film reviews and watching experiences. The site also updates them with new and upcoming films.
#19: Goodreads

Goodreads is another niche social networking site, but this one focuses on books. Book lovers can connect with fellow bookworms and share their book reviews. The site also provides them with book recommendations based on their reading history. Users can join virtual reading clubs and socialise with like-minded individuals.

Image Source: Goodreads
#20: Twitch

Twitch is a live-streaming platform, mostly used by gamers to stream their game play or watch other gamers. Users can interact with live streams from other gamers and comment on them. It has about 2.2 million monthly broadcasters and 140 million monthly unique viewers.
#21: CaringBridge

CaringBridge is one of the only social media sites of its kind. It’s a personal health journal that connects people with their loved ones during a health journey and allows them to provide support. It’s an excellent platform for people who are undergoing serious illnesses and health struggles as it helps them stay connected with people who care about them.
#22: Wattpad

Wattpad is a social media community of readers and writers. The platform sees a ton of user-generated stories across various genres including fiction, poetry, humour, and even fanfiction. It currently has about 70 million readers worldwide.

Image Source: Wattpad
#23: Viadeo

Viadeo is another professional social networking site that connects business owners and entrepreneurs with one another. It is more popular in Europe than in the U.S. and is available in different languages ranging from English and French to German and Portuguese.
#24: Crunchyroll

Crunchyroll is the go-to platform for anime enthusiasts to stream the latest anime shows and read popular mangas. It’s also a social media site where users can interact with each other and engage in anime-related discussions through the forums.
#25: Skyrock

Skyrock is a France-based social networking site, where users can create profiles and blogs and interact with other members. Music, sports, and film blogs are the most popular on this platform.

Image Source: Skyrock
#26: VK

VK is a Russian social media site. While it’s also available in other languages, it is mostly popular among Russian speakers. Users can create groups and public pages, organise events, and message other users. They can also share images, video, and audio or even play browser-based games.
#27: MyHeritage

MyHeritage is a genealogy-based social media site. Users can create family trees, upload and view family photos, and update their family histories. People have even used the platform to find their ancestors and learn more about them. MyHeritage has also introduced DNA testing so users can more accurately trace back their family histories and discover their blood relations.
#28: LiveJournal

This is a blog-based social media site where users can create blogs and journals for other users to read. The platform also curates the top blogs and communities so users can easily access the most popular content on the platform.

Image Source: LiveJournal
#29: Classmates

Classmates is a social media site that connects you with your ex-classmates and school alumni. Users can easily plan their high school reunions through the platform and access their high school yearbook.
#30: SoundCloud

SoundCloud is a music-sharing social media platform where users can upload their original tracks or listen to tracks from other artists. They can add music to their playlists and comment on parts of a track that they like for other users to see.
#31: Bubbly

Bubbly is a voice-based social media site where users can create voice posts and tag and customise them with relevant images and filters. They can also find and connect with celebrities and artists to listen to what they have to say. Users can also share their voice posts to other social media sites like Facebook and Twitter.
#32: Flickr

Flickr is a photo-sharing social media site that’s a favourite among photographers and graphic designers. You can share original, high-quality images on the platform or discover relevant images from other users. You can also join groups and connect with new people with shared interests.

Image Source: Flickr
#33: We Heart It

This is another image-based social media site where users can discover and curate their favourite images into their collections. There are several channels on the platform including art, music, school, quotes, and more. Users can check out these channels for relevant images to inspire them.
#34: Influenster

Influenster is a product review and discovery platform where users can view honest reviews from other consumers. They can gain access to reviews of products across various categories ranging from beauty and makeup to tech and electronics. They can also submit their own reviews of products they’ve used.

The platform will measure each user’s social impact by collecting data from leading social media platforms. Based on this analysis, users can even become part of influencer marketing campaigns relevant to their interests.
#35: FilmAffinity

Another social media site for film enthusiasts, FilmAffinity is a movie recommendation platform. Users can rate the movies they’ve watched and get movie recommendations based on their favourite genres.

Image Source: FilmAffinity
#36: Open Diary

Open Diary is one of the earliest social media sites, founded in 1998. Users can keep a virtual diary to record their daily lives and deepest thoughts. The Open Diary community will be able to access these entries and interact with them. You can even create anonymous posts to share thoughts and experiences that you can’t talk about with anyone else.
#37: Yelp

Yelp is a crowd-sourcing review website where users can share their opinions about local establishments. It’s a great way to find the most recommended places and events in your area.
#38: CollegeHumor

As the name suggests, CollegeHumor is a humour-based website that features fresh humour articles and videos on a daily basis. In addition to content from its in-house team, users can also access memes, articles, images, and videos submitted by other users.
#39: Gaia Online

Gaia Online is an anime-themed social media site where users can participate in trending conversations through forums. They can also explore the platform to meet new people with shared interests and play browser-based games.

Image Source: Gaia Online
#40: MocoSpace

This is a mobile social community where users can connect with other members through public chat rooms and group chats. They can also engage in private chats with other users. They can play mobile games, send eCards, and more.
#41: CouchSurfing

This social media site connects travellers with people from all over the world. They can discover locals in the destinations they’re visiting, request to stay with them, and meet other travellers.
#42: Funny or Die

Funny or Die is a humour-based social website that mainly focuses on video content. Users can view the latest trending videos and upload their own humour videos. In addition to videos, the website also publishes some humour articles and lists to entertain the community.
#43: italki

italki makes language-learning easier by connecting users with native language teachers through video chat. This helps language learners to get interactive, one-on-one tutoring sessions so they can easily learn the language of their choice. They can choose from thousands of teachers in any language.
#44: eToro

eToro is a social trading platform that allows users to follow leading traders in the community and connect with other traders. Users can also earn some extra income by having other traders copy their trading strategies and portfolios.

Image Source: eToro
#45: XING

This is a career-oriented social media site that helps people expand their professional networks. Users can conduct a job search, get the latest industry news, and discover professional events like conferences, seminars, and trade shows. It is mostly a European-focused website.
#45: MeetMe

Previously known as myYearbook, this social media site helps users discover new people to connect with. You can discover new people in your area to connect with and people who share your interests.
#46: Ravelry

There’s a social media site for everyone and for every niche interest. Ravelry is a dedicated social network for people who are interested in knitting and crocheting. They can connect with people who share the same interests and share ideas and inspiration with them.
#47: Care2

Care2 is a social media site for activists, where they can discover trending stories and petitions from around the world. The community is made up of more than 45 million people who want to make the world a better place and stand against cruelty and injustice.

Image Source: Care2
#48: YY

YY is one of the biggest social media sites in China, where users share video content with other users. It has more than 300 million users and allows group video chats. Like Twitch, users can watch a single video of someone engaging in an activity. These activities can range from tutorials to karaoke.
#49: Vero

Vero is a social media site where users can share their favourite things with the community. They can share songs, photos, books, and movies. The platform markets itself as a social network that cares about building real connections between users and doesn’t use data mining and algorithms.
#50: Medium

Medium is a content publishing site with some social network elements to it. Members can publish content on the site and share it with other users. They can “clap to” and comment on posts created by other members. While most articles are free to read, some of them are reserved for paying members.
#51: GIPHY

This is an online database of animated GIFs that are usually humour-based. Users can upload their own GIFs or search for and discover GIFs created by other users. They can react to their favourite GIFs and even share them with friends on other social media platforms.

Image Source: GIPHY
#52: Tribe

Tribe is a cloud-based community where consumers can connect with a brand community. Users can engage in conversations and discussions under specific brands. They can explore and follow different brands, ask questions, start discussions, and create polls relevant to the brands.
Conclusion

These are 52 of the most popular social media sites that you should know about in 2019. If you’re a marketer, some of these platforms can help you promote your brand and products. They can also help you expand your network. If you’re an influencer or a consumer, you can use these sites to connect with like-minded individuals and build better connections.
Benchmark Report
ALL ARTICLES
Influencer Marketing
How to Create a Social Media Content Calendar that Actually Works

Almost every online business these days has a social media presence in one form or another. Both businesses and marketers realise the importance of…
Influencer Marketing
9 Best Types of Social Media Videos for 2020

Images have been dominating the social media landscape for a while. This isn’t surprising since they immediately catch the eye and are much…
Influencer Marketing
9 Tools to Track Your Instagram Followers

If you are merely a casual user of Instagram, showing a few pictures with your friends, you may not see any need to track your Instagram followers…

Indigenous Women: How racism replaced power with oppression

by Kristi Nason, Cultural Anthropology Student, August 16, 2019

 

Despite the significant roles of power and influence held by Indigenous women traditionally, they are currently the most oppressed and abused populations in North America. They are battling a critical crisis in economic opportunity, physical and mental health, violent crime and a lack of adequate legal protections. Current conditions are due to failed historical assimilation attempts and current stereotyping, racism and a complicated law enforcement jurisdiction problem.

I became interested in researching Indigenous women when I learned that prior to colonization many Native women held significant roles of power and influence within their families, communities and political systems. Simultaneously, and in stark contrast, I learned of the Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women (MMIW) awareness campaign and the legal problems around law enforcement jurisdiction gaps for violent and sexual assault victims in Indigenous communities. This paper will summarize my research findings around current issues facing Indigenous communities and provide an overview of the historical circumstances that have led to current conditions. I start with research on pre-colonization gender roles and expectations, then of the assimilation era of the 20th century, and lastly look at current areas of concern.

I’m including a complete listing of resources, not only the ones cited, at the end of this paper. My research included peer reviewed academic sources, ethnographic books, articles available online, the documentary titled “The West”, legal document reviews, personal reflections from my relationships with women in the Nooksack tribe, my personal observations at the “Paddle to Lummi” protocol ceremony and the podcast, “Missing & Murdered: Finding Cleo”, where Connie Walker’s search for a family’s missing sister led me to an understanding of the personal implications of the racist assimilation programs of the Canadian and U.S. governments in the mid to late 20th century.

The terms “Native”, “Indigenous”, “Native American”, “American Indian”, and “Indian” will be found within this report. Another term I’m hearing regularly is “First Nation”. Although I sought to find the term that was the current accepted and respectful identifier, I was unable to make a conclusion about which one that would be. Identifiers are impacted by regions, “Native” being more common in the United States and “Indigenous” being more common in Canada (Zovar 2019) and by personal preference. According to a small survey done by Amanda Blackhorse in 2017, “Indigenous peoples continue to widely reject the monikers ‘Native American’ and ‘American Indian’ and, instead, refer to themselves by their tribe, nation” (Blackhorse, 2017, para 1). Opinions from her survey participants actually contradict each other. One of Blackhorse’s sources explains, “when she’s around friends and family she’ll usually use terms such as ‘Natives’ or ‘Ndns’. When she’s among a non-Native crowd, she will use ‘American Indian’ or ‘Native American.’”(Blackhorse 2017, para 10) In contrast, another Blackhorse source, “doesn’t like to use the terms ‘Native American’ or ‘American Indian’ because as she stated, ‘We were here before America was established. It wasn’t America before settlers came in and created their government.’ She also says that the term ‘Indian’ refers to a historical time and ‘is a run off from the days of Columbus’” (Blackhorse, 2017, para 16). Where possible I will identify using specific tribe or nation identifiers. When speaking generally the terms will be used interchangeably with “Indigenous” being the term that appears to be the most widely acceptable in Canada, and “Native” most widely acceptable in the United States. As a non-Native, I do not assume that I can make the determination on acceptable terminology and hope for some grace from the Indigenous community if I get it wrong. It’s clear to me that the best practice is to ask individuals how they prefer to be identified and respectfully follow their preferences.

A caution against over generalizations

Wherever possible I will be clear about which tribe or geographical area is being discussed. Tribes vary widely in customs, cultures, language and histories and generalizations must be consciously avoided. Prior to my research, I made assumptions that the geographical closeness of the Nooksack Tribe and the Lummi Nation meant they were closely related in culture, language and even genealogy. In many ways, I thought of them generally as one population. One example I came across highlights how false this line of thinking is: “In 1873 an effort was made to remove the Nooksacks to the Lummi Reservation. However, the Nooksacks returned to their upriver sites as they were not closely related by linguistic or kinship ties to the Lummi” (NPAIHB 2019, Nooksack Tribe section). There are many important factors that distinguish between them, despite that they are both located in Whatcom County. To further describe my error in generalizing them together, here is a very brief summary of each:

“The Lummi people (the Lhaq’temish ) traditionally lived near the sea and in mountain areas and returned seasonally to their longhouses located at a number of sites on the present reservation and on the San Juan Islands. The Lummi Nation signed the treaty of Point Elliot in 1855 ceding much of their aboriginal lands in western Washington. In return they received a reservation that originally covered 15,000 acres. …The Lummi are a self-governing Nation within the United States, the third largest tribe in Washington State, serving over 5,000 members. They manage nearly 13,000 acres of tidelands on the Lummi Reservation. … approximately 78% of the enrolled Lummi tribal members live either on or near the reservation boundaries” (NPAIHB 2019, Lummi Nation section).

“The Nooksack Tribe is reported to have 1,800 enrolled members and as of the 2000 census, had a reservation resident population of 547 persons living on 2,720 acres of land. They were not federally recognized until 1971 because they did not have a tribal land base. The 1971 recognition included a reservation of 1 acre in Deming, WA.” (NPAIHB 2019, Nooksack Tribe section). Their status as a federally recognized Nation has been tenuous in recent years over council election and power controversies, and a legal battle over the disenrollment of three family lines that started in 2013.

Along with cautioning against generalizing between tribes for language and genealogy, generalizing about gender roles and issues must also be avoided. “Any attempt to generalize about gender in Native America runs the risk of serious distortion when applied to specific peoples. Native cultures differ from one another in significant ways, and, consequently, so do the relationships between women and men.” (Perdue 1998:7)

Pre-colonization gender roles

In Maze of Injustice, Amnesty International claims: “Contemporary scholars on traditional Native American and Alaska Native cultures have found that prior to colonization women often held esteemed positions in society” (Amnesty 2007:16). Early Cherokee economy was greatly influenced by the ingenuity and leadership of women. “During the Mississippian Culture-period (800 to 1500 CE), local women developed a new variety of maize (corn) called eastern flint. … The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms” (everyculture.com). Many Indigenous cultures were matrilineal, meaning that women controlled property rights and hereditary status. Theda Perdue describes the Cherokee gender roles as balanced: “women balanced men just as summer balanced winter… Men did not dominate women, and women were not subservient to men. … Women had their own arena of power” (Perdue 1998:13). “Available evidence indicates that violence against women [prior to colonization] was rare and, when it occurred, was often severely punished” (Amnesty 2007:16). “Brigadier General James Clinton of the Continental Army said to his soldiers as they were sent off to destroy the Iroquois nation in 1779: ‘Bad as the savages are, they never violate the chastity of any women’” (Smith, p.8).

Coast Salish tribes, such as Nooksack and Lummi, were not strictly matrilineal like the Cherokees, but according to Northwest Coast Native creation myths, as told by Anne Cameron in Daughters of Copper Woman, the woman was created before man. Cameron shares her grandmother’s stories of women as the ones who held the knowledge of life. “Then Copper Woman told Hai Nai Yu that the wisdom must always be passed on to women, and reminded her that whatever the colour of their skin, all people come from the same blood, and the blood is sacred.” (Cameron 2002:43). Cameron retells her grandmother’s story about how women in their prime, who weren’t pregnant or breast feeding, defended their community against rapist colonizers by planning an elaborate attack that included seducing the watchmen, slitting their throats, and in the end sacrificing their lives through a group suicide. (Cameron 2002:75-86).

The influence of the white European-Americans is thought by many historians to have had a significant and negative impact on Indigenous women. According to Everyculture.com, “George Washington sought to ‘civilize’ Southeastern American Indians.” This reflects the ethnocentric beliefs of the time that only Western societies were “civilized” and the Indigenous cultures were called “savages”. On top of this racist bias, women were also subjected to the gender bias of western society. “European societies were thoroughly misogynistic. … Native societies were relatively more peaceful and egalitarian (Smith 2003, 8). “Colonization and its aftermath profoundly changed gender roles among Indigenous peoples” (Amnesty 2007:16). Cameron’s grandmother describes the negative attitudes of the colonizers of her tribe, who she refers to as the “Keestadores”: “They started off complainin’ about the kids swimmin’ naked and wound up tryin’ to control our lives. Wound up talkin’ against the Women’s Society, tellin’ the men that women weren’t supposed to be partners, weren’t supposed to pass inheritance, were only there to be ued by men, bosed around and traded like lifeless things. Seems as if everthing about the women just stuck sideways in their throats” (Cameron 2002:73). In Not an Indian Tradition: The Sexual Colonization of Native Peoples, (2003) Smith explains the motive at the heart of the oppression and abuse: “Native women …pose a supreme threat to the imperial order. … U. S. colonizers view[ed] the subjugation of women of the Native nations as critical to the success of the economic, cultural, and political colonization. … Symbolic and literal control over their bodies is important in the war against Native people” (Smith, 2003, 5).

ASSIMILATION:
CULTURAL GENOCIDE, 20TH CENTURY NORTH AMERICA

Residential boarding schools, the “Sixties Scoop”, and female sterilization without informed consent

“White” Euro-Americans used several practices to keep Indigenous people from interfering with their economic expansion and cultural norms. In the process, they often performed cultural genocide, taking away the ability for the Native people to live by their traditional customs. Some of this was subtle: eliminating the ability for Indigenous people to farm, hunt or fish on vast expanses of land as they had in the past. Some of it was deceptive: making treaty promises that were not kept. Some of it was purposeful: forcing Indigenous children into assimilating residential boarding schools where they were brutally punished for use of their language or customs; sterilizing women of child-bearing age to reduce the population; adoption programs that put Indigenous children into “white” homes with no access to their inherited culture or their birth relatives; and a continuously shrinking service budget for housing, education, medical care and law enforcement.

The affect of these acts of oppression and cultural assimilation-genocide results in current Indigenous people being trapped dependently on government programs that don’t adequately meet their needs. “By 1874…most tribes were officially confined to reservations. Dependent for their survival on government rations that often did not arrive. And on the whims of government agents, who often did not care” (Burns, S1:E6). Many of these people are still on reservations, living in extreme poverty and under complicated legal jurisdiction systems that don’t protect the most vulnerable within their societies. It has also caused generational trauma that continues in today’s families–visible in the statistics of physical health problems, mental/emotional health issues, addiction issues, poverty issues, and crime levels. And strong racism and stereotyping problems, which are an inherit element of colonialism, are still present today.

As Dustin Louie explains in his prevention education proposal (2018), to understand current social positioning of Indigenous peoples, it is necessary to include the oppression and assimilation efforts of Euro-American governments. “[During] an era of tragic attempts of cultural genocide. … The [Indian Residential Schools] IRS system, which remained in Canada until 1996, forcibly apprehended Indigenous children from their families and placed them in distant boarding schools … designed to both usher Indigenous peoples into Western society and eliminate their communal strength … establishing harmful education systems that would irrevocably damage generations of Indigenous people” (Louie, pg. 5).

I learned from Connie Walker’s Missing & Murdered, Finding Cleo podcast that in the 1960s and 70s, the U.S. and Canadian governments coordinated a campaign to adopt out Indigenous children to white families. It is referred to as the “Sixties Scoop”. Advertised like animals and separated from their siblings, the emotional impact of the campaign was tragic. Many Indigenous children lost all contact with their families and cultures, were in some cases adopted for farm labor or abused in other ways, and endured racism in their new homes and communities. “Death by suicide is an all too common outcome for children who were taken during the Sixties Scoop. … Some say these tragic experiences are a direct result of a system designed to ‘deal with the Indian problem’ in Canada. First in residential schools, then in the Sixties Scoop. A system of oppression that many say continues to fail some of the most vulnerable people in Canadian society: Indigenous children. Children who are more than twice as likely as other Canadian children to live in poverty…four times more likely to become involved in the child welfare system… seven times more likely to take their own lives” (Walker, C. 2019, S2:Ep6).

With failed boarding school and adoption campaigns, government agencies then attempted to reduce the number of Indigenous children. I was shocked to learn that as late as 1976, Indigenous women were sterilized without informed consent. “Dr. Connie Uri (Cherokee/Choctaw) conducted … investigations leading her to estimate that 25 percent of all Native women of childbearing age had been sterilized without their informed consent, with sterilization rates as high as 80 percent on some reservations” (Smith, p.10).

FIELDWORK: ETHNOGRAPHIC OBSERVATION, Paddle to Lummi

The startling statistics around suicide and sterilization reminded me that I’d seen articles about another startling issue, Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women. During my online research of the problem, I came across the “Paddle to Lummi” event. The event came up in my search because they intended to address the MMIW issue during their protocol ceremony, scheduled for the following day. I immediately rearranged my schedule to attend the event in person. Before attending, I researched what the “Paddle to Lummi” event’s purpose. “The annual Canoe Journey is a gathering of Indigenous nations from the Pacific Northwest and Canada … [2019’s] host is the Lummi Nation, a Coast Salish nation whose reservation is located near Bellingham, Washington. The event includes round-the-clock sharing of songs, dances and gifts by representatives of each nation and concludes with the calling of witnesses and gifting by the host nation. This follows the tradition of the potlatch, which historically was a form of wealth redistribution” (Walker, R. 2019:para 13).

On July 25, 2019, I loaded a free shuttle bus that traveled around the back roads of the reservation, past a good deal of homes in bad states of disrepair and half covered with wild blackberry bushes. After a walk around the beach and a viewing of the canoes, my husband and I walked up the hill to the Lummi School and we attended that protocol ceremony. I stood crammed into a tiny space next to a trashcan, against the wall of the entrance because the protocol building was completely filled. Elders were given a front-row place of honor around the floor. Different tribes took turns going around the perimeter of the gymnasium-sized floor in the ceremony, each having a different group (such as men or women) to honor and celebrate. Men drumming and singing, women and girls dancing and adding their voices, while the MC spoke of the importance of the group being honored and sprinkling in words from the Lummi Native language. Despite my poor vantage point, the opening of the protocol ceremony was incredibly moving and I found myself getting goose bumps, especially from the beating drums and male voices raised loudly in song. The event felt very much like attending someone else’s family reunion, but every person I encountered was warm and welcoming.

Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women was a focus of this year’s event. Many attendees, inside and outside the building, wore the MMIW symbol of a red-paint handprint on their faces. The protocol ceremony introduced the tragic topic with drums, song, dance and chanting as well as two very large fishnet banners with the words “Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women #MMIW” spelled out on them. The mood had me at the brink of tears.

Another of the issues spotlighted at the protocol was opioid abuse. Although we often hear that alcohol abuse is a major issue among Indigenous people, alcohol abuse was not mentioned. Alcohol and drugs were prohibited at the event. As I walked around the event, including the camping areas, the vendor areas and the beach, I did not see one single incidence of alcohol use. I occasionally smelled marijuana smoke, but did not see it smoked openly. However, tobacco smoking was openly and widely used, despite the event being on school grounds. It did not seem to have the same negative social stigma I’m used to seeing at “white” events. Several vendors had long wooden pipes for sale, as well as sweet grass or sage bundles for smudging.

CURRENT CONCERNS

Physical Health

Statistics of alcoholism and alcohol abuse within Indigenous communities don’t support the common stereotype messages. According to Claire Gordon, “alcoholism is the most well-known health problem in the Native community, and a source of ample stereotyping” (Gordon 2014, para. 3). However, Erikson reported, “in contrast to enduring stories about extraordinarily high rates of alcohol abuse among Native Americans, University of Arizona researchers have found that Native Americans’ binge and heavy drinking rates actually match those of whites [and] Native Americans were more likely to abstain from alcohol use.” Erikson quotes Cunningham who points out that a consistent alcohol abuse problem exists within “[a]ll major U.S. racial and ethnic groups.” Alcohol abuse issues are amplified by other factors for Indigenous peoples. Erikson’s source, Solomon, makes the point that “Native Americans, as a group, have less access to medical care, safe housing and quality food, which can amplify health problems connected to alcohol” (Erikson, 2016: para 1,5,7).

Native communities suffer more of the usual predictors of poor health, such as poverty, unemployment and a steep high school dropout rate. These issues are a great source of stress and concern for Native women who oversee the health care and education of children. Federal funding for health care is vastly inadequate to meet the needs of Native communities. Claire Gordon quotes Colorado State University’s Irene Vernon as saying, “The money we get for health is less than the money given to prisoners” (Gordon, 2014: para 7). Gordon’s statistical research shows American Indians and Alaska Natives with the highest rate of diabetes and the incidence of tuberculosis as five times higher than for non-Hispanic whites. She explains that risk factors–such as inadequate medical services, alcohol and tobacco use, subsidized food and poor nutrition–are common in low-income communities. “Native Americans and Alaska Natives die younger, on average, than other Americans. In addition, “Compared to white Americans, Native people are twice as likely to die in a car crash, three and a half times more likely to die as a pedestrian, twice as likely to die by fire and three times more likely to drown” (Gordon 2014, Injuries).

Suicide

I found the suicide statistics alarming and sad. “Young Native Americans are more likely to kill themselves than any other group … young Native women in Alaska were 19 times more likely to kill themselves than other women their same age” (Gordon 2014, Suicide section). According to Potter, in 2014, John Yellowbird Steele, the president of the Oglala Lakota, declared the youth suicide rate an emergency on the Pine Ridge reservation. “By June 2015, he was testifying in front of Congress, citing the loss of 11 lives in just seven months, with an additional 176 youth attempting suicide. Girls in particular are at risk” (Potter 2016: para 8-9). Her Many Horses, Oglala Lakota tribal member, proposed a possible explanation for the high youth suicide rate on the reservation: “Poverty is so widespread and so is joblessness. These kids need jobs. Our kids are not prepared for the system. Some cannot even get a drivers license” (Larsen 2015). Many communities have implemented teen suicide prevention programs and those run by tribes often include cultural education programs to assist young Natives in feeling connected to their tribal communities. Potter describes one such program on the Pine Ridge reservation: “Each summer, elder Inila Wakan Janis and his wife, Jennifer Janis, a teacher at the local middle school, present a math camp there for the girls. It’s a way to keep them up with studies during the summer as well as a chance to imprint the spiritual and cultural practices of their people” (2016, para 2).

Violent Crime, Sexual Abuse and Exploitation

In addition to suicide, violent crime on many reservations has “skyrocketed in the last decade, even as it’s dropped across the country. Too few tribal officers and federal police, and deeply underfunded tribal courts, have created a pervasive sense of lawlessness“ (Gordon, 2014). Gordon shares this tragic statistic: “One in three American Indian women is raped in her lifetime, … more than twice the national average” (Gordon 2014, Sexual Abuse section).  The sex trade is of special concern for Indigenous girls and young women and appears to be a factor in the Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women numbers. Dustin Louie, examines which life experiences increase the threat of sexual exploitation and how Indigenous girls are recruited into the sex trade in his 2018 prevention-education proposal. Louie also explains how the sex trade is especially dangerous for Indigenous girls who are “more likely to experience physical abuse and rape … while also being less likely to have their reports pursued by the police“ (Louie:3). “Colonization, realized through IRS [Indian Residential Schools], assumptions of white supremacy, and systemic oppression, establishes an environment in which Indigenous girls endure the [exploitation] pathways at an increased rate. … [and] influences predators to recruit Indigenous girls as a result of societal devaluation of Indigenous femininity” (Louie 2018:24). Identifying the Needs of American Indian Women Who Sought Shelter details areas of need for victimized Native women and challenges to meeting those needs: “[A] wide variety of specific personal needs (e.g., safety, housing, transportation), needs relating to their children (e.g., safety, education, socialization), community needs (e.g., relating to their tribe), as well as legal needs (e.g., help obtaining a restraining order or divorce). …The nature of native culture presents unique challenges for victimized women –especially among those living on the reservation– including increased social and geographic isolation and a lack of community resources” (Fox et al 2018: 1).

Law Enforcement and Legal Jurisdiction Problems

Even after a good deal of research on my part, I’m still confused by the legal jurisdiction issues that complicate the ability to enforce laws against violence and sexual assault. It appears that formal legal agreements can be written between law enforcement agencies, (state, federal and tribal) to fill the gaps, but I was unable to conclusively find any for the Lummi Nation or Nooksack Tribe. Limited budgets for tribal law enforcement and court systems create a dangerous lack of available protection and justice services. Maximum sentence restrictions for tribal courts, set by the federal government, is another area that limits the ability for victims to receive justice for the crimes against them.

The Indian Law and Order Commission points to “the archaic system in place, in which Federal and State authority displaces Tribal authority and often makes Tribal law enforcement meaningless.” (ILOC, 2013, p.14). The Indian Law Resource Center explains that Indian nations are unable to prosecute non-Indians, despite the fact that they commit the vast majority (86%) of sexual violence crimes against Native women. Some of this number is non-Native men who live directly on tribal land “non-Indians now comprise 76% of the population on tribal lands and 68% of the population in Alaska Native villages” (Indianlaw.org). “An unworkable, race-based criminal jurisdictional scheme created by the United States has limited the ability of Indian nations to protect Native women from violence and to provide them with meaningful remedies” (ILRC n.d.:Racial Discrimination section).  It is disturbing that non-Native men can live on tribal land but be outside the jurisdiction of tribal police. But the lack of response from U.S. attorneys, who have the jurisdiction to prosecute non-Natives and don’t, is even more disturbing. “[B]etween 2005 and 2009, U.S. attorneys declined to prosecute 67% of the Indian country matters referred to them involving sexual assault … many of these crimes in Native communities are not even investigated” (Indianlaw.org, n.d.). Several attempts at updating legal jurisdictions have been presented and a few laws have been passed. However, resources for tribal law enforcement, such as funding, are still lacking. “On paper, President Obama closed that loophole when he signed the Violence Against Women Act in March. But not one tribe is currently [as of 2014] capable of enforcing the new law” (Gordon 2014: Sexual Abuse section). Amnesty International claims “Indigenous peoples in the USA face deeply entrenched marginalization–the result of a long history of systemic and pervasive abuse and persecution. Sexual violence against Indigenous women today [is] …compounded by the federal government’s steady erosion of tribal government authority and its chronic under-resourcing. … It is against this backdrop that American Indian and Alaska Native women continue to experience high levels of sexual violence, a systemic failure to punish those responsible and official indifference to their rights to dignity, security and justice” (Amnesty 2007: 14).

 

 

CONCLUSION

The power once held by Indigenous women has been systematically stripped by Euro-American conquest, racism, and assimilation practices that resulted in cultural genocide and generational trauma. Indigenous communities today are under-funded, under-resourced, and under-supported. Despite epidemic levels in violent and sexual crimes, tribal police are crippled by complicated legal jurisdiction problems and a lack of resources to protect their communities. The Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women awareness campaign is highlighting current racism in the media (with under-reporting, and victim blaming) and within the judicial system (with lack of diligent record keeping, lack of communication with tribes, and lack of response to reported crime). Non-Natives are mostly unaware of Indigenous challenges and often believe the false stereotypes and respond with racist attitudes. We must do more to support our Indigenous neighbors–vote for laws that support and protect their safety, well-being and culture; demand legal jurisdiction clarification and cooperation agreements between law enforcement agencies; stop telling history from a biased “white” perspective; and stand against white privilege attitudes and negative stereotypes. It is our responsibility to learn about the true history of how we treated Indigenous peoples in the past, and how we are treating them today. We must also support and encourage their fight for self-determination and the strengthening of their nearly lost beautiful cultures and languages.

 

 

 

 

References

Amnesty International USA, 2007, Maze of injustice, The failure to protect Indigenous women from sexual violence in the USA

Blackhorse, Amanda, Aug 14, 2017, Blackhorse: Native American? American Indian? Nope. Refer to Us By Our Tribe, Nation. https://newsmaven.io/indiancountrytoday/archive/blackhorse-native-american-american-indian-nope-hNAQB_MRSk-07Cw1hAF8Xw/

Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Northwest-Coast-Indian/Technology-and-the-visual-arts

Burns, Ken, 1996, The West, (a film by Stephen Ives), Season 1, Episodes 2, 6-9, (documentary via Netflix)

Cameron, Anne, 2002, Daughters of Copper Woman, Harbour Publishing Ltd.

Cherokee Museum, https://cherokeemuseum.org/learn/faq

Erikson, Jane, UA College of Medicine – Tucson, Feb. 8, 2016, https://uanews.arizona.edu/story/study-debunks-notions-about-native-americans-alcohol

Everyculture.com, https://everyculture.com/knowledge/Cherokee.html, and https://everyculture.com/North-America/Cherokee-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html

Fiske, Jo-Anne. 1991. “Colonization and the Decline of Women’s Status: The Tsimshian Case.” Feminist Studies 17 (3): 509. doi:10.2307/3178288.

Fox, Kathleen A., Bonnie S. Fisher, and Scott H. Decker. 2018. “Identifying the Needs of American Indian Women Who Sought Shelter: A Practitioner-Researcher Partnership.” Journal of Family Violence 33 (4): 251–56. doi:10.1007/s10896-018-9953-8.

Gordon, C. (2014) 5 big Native American health issues you don’t know about america.aljazeera.com/watch/shows/america-tonight/america-tonight-blog/2013/8/28/5-huge-native-americanhealthissuesyoudontknowabout.html

Indian Law and Order Commission, 2013, A Roadmap for Making Native America Safer, https://www.aisc.ucla.edu/iloc/report/files/Front_Material.pdf, https://www.aisc.ucla.edu/iloc/report/

Indian Law Resource Center, Ending Violence Against Native Women | Indian Law Resource Center. [online] Available at: https://indianlaw.org/issue/ending-violence-against-native-women [Accessed 23 Jul. 2019].

Johnston, Carolyn Ross, 2003, Cherokee Women in Crisis: Trail of Tears, Civil War, and Allotment, 1838-1907, 2003) https://www.amazon.com/dp/081735056X/ref=rdr_ext_tmb

Larsen, Kevin, February 17, 2015, Chadrad Communications, Stereo AM 610 KCSR, Nebraska, https://chadrad.com/newsstory.cfm?story=36609

Louie, Dustin, 2018, Sexual Exploitation Prevention Education for Indigenous Girls, Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canadian Journal of Education / Revue canadienne de l’éducation 41:2 (2018) ©2018 Canadian Society for the Study of Education/

National Indian Council on Aging (NICOA), January 21, 2019, Inadequate data on missing murdered indigenous women and girls. https://nicoa.org https://nicoa.org/inadequate-data-on-missing-murdered-indigenous-women-and-girls/

Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board (NPAIHB) website, accessed 2019, Nooksack Tribe and Lummi Nation sections, http://www.npaihb.org/member-tribes/nooksack-tribe/#1450475820391-49a99642-a785

Perdue, Theda,1998, Cherokee Women: Gender and Culture Change, 1700-1835 (1998)

Potter, Alex, 2016, Gone Girl, life in Pine Ridge after the suicide of 12-year old Santana Janis, accessed 2019, Aljazeera America, http://projects.aljazeera.com/2016/02/pine-ridge-teen-suicide/

reference.com/world-view/cherokee-traditions-16729a83d8d5c92f

Smith, Andrea, (Spring 2003), Not an Indian Tradition: The Sexual colonization of Native Peoples, Hypatia vol. 18, no. 2

Soap, Charlie, (2015). Cherokee Nation Citizen, https://www.cherokeephoenix.org/Article/index/9227)

Walker, Connie, TRANSCRIPT: Missing & Murdered – Season 2, EP 6, CBC Radio · Posted: Mar 30, 2019 3:52 AM ET | Last Updated: May 8).

Walker, Richard. 2019. “Canoe Journey Generation Youth Are Fulfilling The Dream Of Its Seattle Founder – Indiancountrytoday.Com”. Indiancountrytoday.Com. https://newsmaven.io/indiancountrytoday/news/canoe-journey-generation-youth-are-fulfilling-the-dream-of-its-seattle-founder-AUzTODMtUUy-WRJInn-BJQ/.

Washington State Legislature, 2007, Bill Summary HB 2476 https://app.leg.wa.gov/billsummary?BillNumber=2476&Year=2007

Whatcom County Law and Justice Plan, 2008, (Author: Northwest Regional Council?) pg. 33 http://www.co.whatcom.wa.us/DocumentCenter/View/847/Whatcom-County-Law-and-Justice-Plan-PDF?bidId=

Zovar, Dr. Jennifer, 2019, Cultural Anthropology 206, Whatcom Community College, Bellingham, Washington, (instructor input and comments throughout the quarter)